by Viv Forbes, Science Writer
Every day some green energy promoter or a battery salesman tells us how green energy with battery backup will supply Australia’s future electricity needs.
A battery stores energy. Energy can be stored using lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, lithium, molten salt, pumped hydro, hydrogen, flywheels, compressed air or some other smart gizmo. But NOT ONE battery produces new energy – they simply store and discharge energy produced by other means. They all deliver less energy than they consume. Moreover, to manufacture, charge, use and dispose of batteries consumes energy and resources.
The idea of producing reliable grid power from intermittent green energy backed up by batteries looks possible in green doodle-diagrams, but would be absurdly inefficient and expensive.
Solar works a Six hour day
Consider a solar panel which is rated to collect say 100 units of energy per day at full capacity, in full mid-day sunlight, with a clean panel, properly aligned to face the sun.
No solar energy arrives overnight and only minimal amounts arrive during the three hours after dawn or before dusk. That means that solar energy can only be collected for about 6 hours per day, providing it is not cloudy, raining or snowing. No amount of research or regulation will change this – the solar energy union only works a six-hour day and takes quite a few sickies. So instead of feeding 100 units of energy per day into the grid, at best, the panel supplies just 25 units.
Can the addition of batteries give us 24/7 power from solar?
To deliver 100 units of energy in 24 hours will require an extra 75 units of energy to be collected, stored and delivered by the batteries every sunny day. This will require another three solar units devoted solely to re-charging batteries in just 6 sunny hours.
Cloudy/wet days are what really expose the problems of solar plus batteries. (This is why isolated green power systems must have a diesel generator in the shed.)
To insure against, say, 7 days of cloudy weather would require a solar/battery system capable of collecting and storing 700 units of energy while still delivering 100 units to consumers every day. However if several consecutive weeks of sunny weather then occur, this bloated system is capable of delivering 7 times more power than needed, causing power prices to plunge, driving reliable generators out of business and wasting the life of solar panels producing unwanted electricity.
Solar energy obviously does best in sunny equatorial deserts, but that is not where most people live. And the huge Desertec Solar Power Dream for the northern Sahara has failed.
The report card on wind energy is different, but equally depressing.
When Australia had reliable, predictable coal-gas-hydro power in every state, the need for heavy interstate transmission was minimal. But green power will require robust and costly interstate transmission facilities to send large amounts of power at short notice from sunny coal-rich Queensland to cloudy Victoria, windless South Australia or droughted Tasmania.
Playing Snakes and Ladders with Australia’s Electricity Supply.
We are told that wind/solar plus pumped water storage will provide adequate grid power. Unfortunately those huge hydro-pumps need steady continuous power – something not provided by intermittent green energy. So are politicians planning to install huge chemical batteries or diesel motors to steadily re-charge the elevated water storages in order to get back less energy than was consumed by the pumps?
Both wind and solar are unpredictable, unreliable, intermittent and weather-dependent energy sources. They require large collection areas with a cob-web of access roads and transmission lines. Their output can change suddenly and cannot be managed easily to meet demand fluctuations. They need flexible backup power able to swing in quickly to maintain stability and supply.
Gas provides the easiest back-up for green energy, but gas exploration is banned in many areas of NSW, South Aust and the whole of gas-rich Victoria. Canny residents of the green states are now investing in diesel generators.
The Perfect Solar Battery
God has already given us the perfect solar battery for long-term storage of energy: it is called “Coal”. Solar power from sunlight is converted by photosynthesis into wood, and thence into coal for high-density long-term solar energy storage. The downside to this system is that it has tied up large quantities of carbon that is therefore unavailable to the natural world. The upside is that releasing the energy from coal also releases life-giving CO2 back into the biosphere, where it belongs.
Our growing energy crisis was caused by political interference – Australian politicians have not learned last century’s lessons of central planning in the comrade societies.
Robert Gottliebsen writing in “The Australian” 21/3/2017 puts it succinctly:
“The looming crisis is much worse than I expected. Three state governments, Victoria, NSW and South Australia, have vandalised our total energy system. The Premiers of each state clearly had no idea what they were doing. . .”
He also wrote: “My information from the best possible sources is that if Victoria’s Hazelwood power station is shut on April 2, there is a 75% chance of blackouts in NSW and Victoria next summer.”
The best solution would be to cease all government force-feeding of intermittent green energy, get politicians out of the energy business and allow the construction of any gas/coal/nuclear or hydro plants that stack up for energy companies, investors and consumers. This will eliminate all the land-loss, materials and labour involved in building, running and maintaining an unreliable, unpredictable, uneconomic, intermittent and absurdly expensive solar/wind/battery/hydro/diesel monstrosity?”
Intermittent energy with batteries or back-up should be used and paid for by those who find them useful. They should not be subsidised or forced onto power grids or reluctant consumers.
Society has better things to do with community cash than squandering it on massive green energy toys and battery baloney.
Viv Forbes has formal qualifications in Applied Science and Investment Analysis and long experience at analysing industries and projects.
To view or print the whole article with image click: http://carbon-sense.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/snakes-and-ladders.pdf
Solar Power Realities: http://carbon-sense.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/solar-realities.pdf
The 53 year old Hazelwood Coal-fired power station makes more electricity than Australia’s entire wind industry: http://joannenova.com.au/2017/03/hazelwood-countdown-53-years-old-and-making-more-electricity-than-australias-entire-wind-industry/
Hazelwood is vital to Australia’s power supply: http://www.newsweekly.com.au/article.php?id=57624
Australia must Keep Hazelwood Power station open: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/mar/24/emergency-intervention-urged-to-keep-open-hazelwood-power-plant
Lifetime audit: offshore wind generation remains uncompetitive with gas and coal which are half the cost: https://wattsupwiththat.com/2017/03/22/by-the-numbers-lifetime-performance-of-worlds-first-offshore-wind-farm/
Desertec Sahara Solar Project Fails: http://www.natureasia.com/en/nmiddleeast/article/10.1038/nmiddleeast.2015.4
Study finds that trying to store green energy in a battery does more environmental harm than good: http://www.houstonchronicle.com/business/columnists/tomlinson/article/Study-storing-solar-power-is-a-bad-idea-10900007.php
Britain needs to come clean on the costs of renewable energy: http://us4.campaign-archive2.com/?u=c920274f2a364603849bbb505&id=53b44af288&e=e1638e04a2
The Liberals and Nationals are trying every devious trick in the book to stop this banking inquiry bill from getting passed in federal parliament. Renegade LNP Member for Dawson in Central Queensland, George Christensen, confirmed today he will cross the floor to support Bob Katter who has led the charge against the unlawful and unethical conduct of banks. Every small businessman and farmer in Australia will benefit from this inquiry.
The People of Australia’s Commission of Inquiry (Banking and Financial Services) Bill 2017
The bill provides for the establishment of a Commission of Inquiry. The Bill invests the People of Australia’s’ Commission of Inquiry with the full powers of a Royal Commission as laid out in the Royal Commissions Act 1902. The Commission of Inquiry will inquire into unethical, unlawful and improper conduct in the banking, financial services and related sectors.
The purpose of the Bill is to fully expose and shine the light of public scrutiny on the unethical and unlawful conduct/practices in the banking and financial services industries and to put forward recommendations for reform.
Particular concern has been raised in relation to the conduct of service providers in the banking, superannuation, insurance and other financial services sectors.
Responding to numerous media reports, whistleblower disclosures and cases raised with Members of Parliament and Senators, there have been 37 reviews and inquiries into banking and financial services since 2010. However, none of these past reviews/inquiries have had the level of powers of a Royal Commission. These past reviews/inquiries have often not been independent, have been politicised and have had limited scopes of inquiry. This has led to little, or no, reform to the sector, nor justice for the victims. Nor has this led to the spotlighting of the malpractices, shortcomings and injustices of current financial practices.
The Commission of Inquiry will have the full powers of the Royal Commissions Act 1902 plus additional powers related to protecting whistleblowers. The Commission of Inquiry will report to the Parliament, as opposed to a Royal Commission which reports to the Executive arm of Government.
Read the documents:
The Banker Airs His Views On The Right Of The Elite
To Control Everyones Lives. A Must Watch For Anyone Who Is Angry About The Current Finanacial Situation! This Is Whats Really Going On!
Big Brother now wants to control your mind with a 5G network. This is scary, read the entire article:
Find out why 5G is the basis for the IoT (Internet of Things): a complete, inescapable technological control grid manipulating the human energy field.
By Makia Freeman
5G is being rolled out fast right now, with Verizon testing it out in 11 US cities and ATT also conducting experiments. For those who don’t know, 5G is the latest wireless system that telecommunications companies are trying to implement to service wireless communication. It’s designed to allow faster downloads of more data. It uses the 28, 37 and 39 GHz bands, also known as millimetre wave (mmW) spectrum. 5G, which comes from the term 5th generation, is designed to work in conjunction with what former CIA head David Petraeus called the Internet of Things or IoT. The agenda is to hook every single material thing on the planet, as well as humans themselves, onto a vast planet-wide web where everything and everyone become nodes on the network – connected by microchips which are nano-size and can be inhaled (like smart dust).
Many people are encouraging the advancement of 5G by their desire at all costs for convenience and speed (give me my multiple gigabit downloads now!). People are foolishly valuing this over privacy, safety and health. 5G is not merely an upgrade of wireless infrastructure; it is a giant leap towards the erection and installation of a total technological control grid. The agenda is to cover the entire Earth – including rural areas – with the 5G electromagnetic blanket, so that its effects can literally not be escaped by anyone living on this planet.
FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler’s Scary Speech
If I haven’t got your attention yet, please take a look at this video, where FCC (Federal Communications Commission) head Tom Wheeler lays out how 5G is going to happen – consequences be damned. At the 2:42 mark, the video goes through an edited version of his June 2016 speech at the National Press Club in Washington DC. From my perspective, Wheeler appears more than just intense or defiant; he borders on the psychopathic. This guy is another former corporate lobbyist using the good old “revolving door” at the top of the business-political world. He now occupies a key governmental office to promote the agenda of his former industry (telecommunications). He is advocating the rollout of a game-changing technology (with toxic and cancerous side effects for some) that’s going to affect all life on Earth, but he doesn’t want to wait for safety standards. Later on the video, Wheeler ignores and dodges questions about the wireless radiation-cancer connection.
Here’s a summary of his points:
– 5G will penetrate material objects better: thanks to “brilliant engineers”, 5G radiation will be even harder to shield yourself against;
– 5G will be infrastructure-intensive: the plan is to erect even more radiating towers in every corner of the planet, adding a new meaning to the concept of electromagnetic soup;
– 5G will make tens of billions of dollars for its owners through “unanticipated and unintended” consequences (after this point, Wheeler slams his fist on the podium and says, “That’s damn important”);
– 5G is going to go ahead without the FCC waiting for governmental standards (Wheeler proudly proclaims that “unlike other countries”, the US cares about being “first out of the gate” (i.e. economically). He suggests we “turn innovators loose” rather than wait for committees to decide things. He defiantly declares that, “We won’t wait for the standards”);
– 5G will require the sharing of frequencies with the military;
– 5G is the technological basis for the IoT (Wheeler states that “hundreds of millions of microchips” will be in everything [and everyone if they get their way]);
– All parts of the Earth will be covered, so there will be urban and rural radiation saturation.
By Robert J Lee in Canberra
The Liberal and Labor parties are terrified by the extent of the Muslim vote in Australia, particularly in NSW and Victoria.
The Pickering Post last year reported the Muslim bloc vote across both states could affect the outcome of a federal election.
Up to 15 per cent of the primary vote in 15 seats is controlled by the Muslim community and Defence Minister Christopher Pyne’s recent reaction, denigrating Pauline Hanson for her comments about stopping immigration from Muslim countries reveal how scared the Liberals are of offending Islam.
Independent Member for the Far Northern seat of Kennedy, Bob Katter has a bill prepared to do just what Hanson is frightening the Liberals and Labor about.
Katter’s bill is modelled on US President Donald Trump’s controversial anti-Muslim immigration bill that would stop residents of identified Islamic countries from entering Australia.
It will be tabled in the House of Representatives in May.
The Vaucluse vacuum, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull fares no better. His continued public support for Islamic citizens in Australia, more so those in Liberal-held electorates, demonstrates the extent of his fear.
Turnbull wants to continue with the importation of 12,000 ‘refugees’ from Islamic countries, in spite of 500 so far having been rejected on security grounds.
The religion of these ‘refugees’ remains largely unknown, a little bit like the section of the Australian Census form asking for religious status.
The Liberal Party seems oblivious to 80 per cent of Australians rejecting the UN-orchestrated immigration plan, to further inject a large number of Muslim ‘refugees’ into a once homogenous society.
Like a broken record Turnbull, at every opportunity claims Australia is the most successful ‘multicultural country in the world.’
This is correct in part thanks to the ‘White Australia’ policy that ensured the majority of immigrants from the 1950’s to the late 70’s originated from European countries.
Turnbull’s claim has not been relevant since the early 1980’s coincidental with the corrupt regime of the infamous Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawke, whom Australia has to thank for the ethnic ghettos of Sydney and Melbourne accompanied by rampant gangland crime.
To expect Muslims or any other person to truthfully reveal their religious ideology is a pipe dream of the Bureau of Statistics. It is easy to mark in ‘Christian’ without fear of checks or balances.
Thus the number of real Muslims living in Australia is anybody’s guess although the ABS claims there are roughly 500,000.
In 2014-15, of the total of 13,756 humanitarian migrants:
- 2,335 were from Iraq
- 2,232 were from Syria
- 1,813 were from Afghanistan and
- 331 were from Iran.
These four majority Muslim countries made up 48.8% of the humanitarian intake. (source Business Insider)
During the 2007-13 Rudd-Gillard-Rudd era of Prime Ministership an estimated 120,000, mainly Muslim refugee immigrants entered Australia by air. It is believed most of these immigrants remained in the country, in addition to the normal immigrant inflow.
Australia’s immigration policy does not discriminate on the grounds of ethnic origin or religion.
Perhaps we should ask the United Kingdom or France how many radical Muslims does it take to make a bomb or drive a car?
Pictures from Google images
The chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, California Rep. Devin Nunes, confirmed on Wednesday 22nd March 2017 President Donald Trump’s claims that his presidential transition team was spied on by former President Barack Obama’s administration.
The information they gathered was then widely spread throughout the Obama administration, Nunes said.
If evidence is found that Obama had it done intentionally to assist failed Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton’s campaign, which many critics suspect, this could be huge.
In fact, it could lead to Obama being arrested.
According to Nunes, the U.S. intelligence community collected information on members of the Trump transition team incidentally. The information was then “widely disseminated” in intelligence reports.
“I recently confirmed that on numerous occasions, the intelligence community collected information on U.S. individuals involved in the Trump transition,” Nunes told reporters. “Details about U.S. persons involved in the incoming administration, with little or no apparent foreign intelligence value, were widely disseminated in intelligence community reports.”
“This information was legally brought to me by sources who thought we should know it,” Nunes said. There were “dozens of reports, but no mention of Russia.”
The revelation comes just after a bombshell committee hearing Tuesday where FBI Director James Comey told Congress there was “no information” that Trump had been wiretapped.
According to Nunes, the wiretap “legally collected foreign intelligence under FISA incidental collection.”
But Nunes also said he was “alarmed” that the information “ended up in reporting channels and was widely disseminated” — and critics are calling for a full investigation into how this happened.
“I’m not gonna get into legal definitions here, but clearly I have a concern” that Obama was spying on Trump, Nunes said.
LNP VOTE WITH LABOR TO KILL RURAL DEBT REFORM
State Member for Mount Isa Robbie Katter has slammed the LNP for supporting Labor to vote against a real solution to address rural debt.
In a parliamentary session that went into the early hours of Wednesday morning the KAP’s Rural and Regional Adjustment (Development Assistance) Amendment Bill was denied a vote in the House through the blocking of a motion put forward by Robbie Katter.
“The motion was put forward to enable the Parliament to adequately consider and vote on a solution that would’ve seen a new lending mechanism established to address the shortcomings in QRAA’s current activities”
“Each member of the crossbench voted to allow the motion to be heard but it was the major parties who didn’t allow it. It’s unbelievable that they would so blatantly work together to stifle a minor party Bill.”
“With so much public disappointment in partisan politics it’s ironic that the only thing the major parties can agree on is limiting consideration of minor party Bills”
Mr Katter highlighted the amount of consultation and analysis that went into the KAP’s Bill and expressed his disappointment at the behaviour of the major parties.
“The LNP not only supported Labor’s Bill over the KAP alternative, they actively worked to restrict debate and consideration of the KAP Bill”
“The LNP and Government used every excuse in the book to avoid undertaking a difficult reform. They even used banking regulations as an excuse. Do they forget where here to change laws and regulations? If I told my constituents that I wasn’t prepared to undertake legislative reform because of a regulation I wouldn’t deserve to represent them”
“For me, the genesis of this Bill was during the term of the Newman Government, which shows that this has taken years of stakeholder discussions, industry forums, community and local leader’s input,” Mr Katter said.
“Through the Rural Debt and Drought Taskforce that I chaired in this parliament it was clear that the debt problem is massive and that a significant response from the Government was required to address it”
“However what the Parliament has achieved is an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff. A farm debt mediation mechanism doesn’t solve the debt problem it just ensures that when the problem has finally caught up with a producer they can shut their business efficiently”
KAP’s legislation was designed to address not only the cattle industry, but also the viability of our rural towns.
“We need ways of stimulating the economies of the rural towns that rely on agriculture. Rather than using blunt funding programs to create short term employment, why not invest in reconstructing the core industry so longer term organic growth can be delivered”
Mr Katter expressed disappointment at the Government and Opposition’s “hands-off” approach to supporting a key Queensland industry.
“In 2015, I thought the Palaszczuk Government was serious about identifying solutions to address rural debt issues with the formation of a Rural Debt and Drought Taskforce. I was wrong. Just like the Opposition they prefer to leave it to the “market”. This approach has delivered a declining sugar industry, a decimated dairy industry and some of the most expensive gas and electricity in the world.”
“Government’s “intervene” in markets all the time. Between the Clean Energy Finance Corporation and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency there’s about $5 billion worth of low interest loans to help stimulate the industry. However when it comes to supporting agriculture, and particularly family enterprises, the Government doesn’t want to touch it”.
“The rural community right throughout the State should be angry that a significant proposal to benefit people doing it tough and earning a living in regional Queensland would be stymied and watered down by both major parties.”
The EPA May Have Been in Bed With Big Pesticide for Years
By Charles Pierce, Esquire – 20 March 17
The miracles of the discovery process, part infinity.
There is, at the moment, a massive lawsuit against the Monsanto company regarding Roundup, its most popular pesticide. The company is being sued by citizens who maintain that glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, is responsible for their cancers. On Tuesday, the judge overseeing the case unsealed some of the documents that have been filed related to the case, and nobody comes out clean—not the company and, sadly, not the EPA, either.
From The New York Times:
The court documents included Monsanto’s internal emails and email traffic between the company and federal regulators. The records suggested that Monsanto had ghostwritten research that was later attributed to academics and indicated that a senior official at the Environmental Protection Agency had worked to quash a review of Roundup’s main ingredient, glyphosate, that was to have been conducted by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The documents also revealed that there was some disagreement within the E.P.A. over its own safety assessment. In one email unsealed Tuesday, William F. Heydens, a Monsanto executive, told other company officials that they could ghostwrite research on glyphosate by hiring academics to put their names on papers that were actually written by Monsanto. “We would be keeping the cost down by us doing the writing and they would just edit & sign their names so to speak,” Mr. Heydens wrote, citing a previous instance in which he said the company had done this.
Bloomberg has focused in on one particular phone conversation that makes nobody look good.
The boast was made during an April 2015 phone conversation, according to farmers and others who say they’ve been sickened by the weed killer. After leaving his job as a manager in the EPA’s pesticide division last year, Jess Rowland has become a central figure in more than 20 lawsuits in the U.S. accusing the company of failing to warn consumers and regulators of the risk that its glyphosate-based herbicide can cause non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. “If I can kill this I should get a medal,” Rowland told a Monsanto regulatory affairs manager who recounted the conversation in an email to his colleagues, according to a court filing made public Tuesday. The company was seeking Rowland’s help stopping an investigation of glyphosate by a separate office, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, that is part of the U.S. Health and Human Service Department, according to the filing.
The good people at DeSmog Blog have a solid review of the curious history that the EPA has with glyphosate, about which the EPA seems curiously ambivalent as regards classifying it as a carcinogen.
For example, why did the EPA determine in 1985 that glyphosate should be classified as a group C carcinogen — possibly cancer-causing in humans but lacking sufficient studies of humans and animals — only to reverse that decision six years later? Did it have anything to do with Monsanto’s influence over the agency, or did new studies emerge that cast doubt on previous conclusions? The latter seems less likely considering the fact that the bulk of independent research has reached the same conclusions about the existence of a probable link between Roundup’s glyphosate and cancers. Another question that these documents could finally answer is why the EPA has been constantly at odds with the majority of the scientific community over the potential dangers of glyphosate. If, in fact, Monsanto was submitting ghostwritten research to the agency, which then failed to do its own testing, that might explain why the EPA has never found a link (beyond the original determination in the 1980s). The answers to those questions may appear during the ongoing trials against Monsanto and as more documents are released from the trial.
This behaviour seems bizarre at best, and ethically dubious at worst, and it happened under the stewardship of the previous administration. I am not optimistic that things will improve under Scott Pruitt, the new EPA administrator, whose campaigns back in Oklahoma were into Monsanto for considerable dough. The discovery process can be a wonderful—if terrifying—thing.
Welcome news from the Liberal and Labor church of free trade – Adam Smith would be proud of Mr Turnbull, Mr Shorten and their Uruguay DOFAT mandarins
Today the Queensland Government has confirmed White Spot virus has been found in wild prawns in Moreton Bay off Brisbane and now cannot be stopped.
KAP Member for Kennedy, Bob Katter said, “I congratulate the Government of the Australia with their Free Trade policies and no quarantine.
“Our prawn industry has been sacrificed on the altar of Free Trade.
“Not only all our industries have been exported overseas, and our jobs exported overseas but you’ve imported workers from overseas, which has been a cancer upon our pay and conditions and job opportunities in Australia — but now you’ve succeeded in destroying our oceans.
“Because the currents flow north, White Spot will now be taken up the Qld coast and infect the Great Barrier Reef.
“This was done with eyes wide open.
“Every single person associated with the prawn industry and every scientist who ever looked at this knew if you brought the prawns in, you’d bring the White Spot in… and the IHHNV and heaven only knows which hundreds of other diseases we haven’t identified…and these damn people in Canberra run around talking about our clean green image,” said Mr Katter.
The Australian Prawn Farmers Association (APFA) President Matt West owns a prawn farm in the Mackay region. In a media report from January this year, Mr West says although his stock are some distance from the Sth East Qld region damaged by the outbreak, the disease can spread rapidly, “especially if it gets hold in the wild”.
NB: Cairns News published an exclusive story on January 10, 2107 about Chinese prawn importer Sino deliberately altering prawn samples for biosecurity testing. The company has been charged by Federal Police for falsifying records allowing white spot infected prawns to be introduced into Queensland. Imported green prawns infected with white spot virus used by anglers for fish bait are thought to have infected seven Gold Coast prawn farms and now Moreton Bay near Brisbane.
This review below from the Vaccine Information Service when read should be sufficient to bury the lying, misleading and harmful Australian Medical Association which claims vaccines are safe for all, including little babies.
What rot and the sooner Turnbull and wife Lucy are removed from the top job the better.
Lucy Turnbull is a major shareholder in a vaccine company, and the Prime Minister’s unlawful blackmail of unsuspecting parents who will be prevented from admitting their unvaccinated kids to child care and schools must be stopped. Section 51 (xxiiA) of the Commonwealth Constitution of Australia prevents enforced mass medication by government.
“The sooner one of the anti-vax groups starts a class action the better.”
Vaccination Information Service
|“It is the inability to see the effects of chronic, low-level toxicities on human health that has been, and remains, our greatest failing as intelligent beings.” Dr. Boyd Haley|
|General information brochures – educate your local community!
|Below is a list of ingredients in vaccines. (It is not exhaustive – there are other chemicals not in the list.)
If you are tempted to assume that these poisons would only be in harmless quantities in vaccines, note:
1) There is no safe level for some of these poisons, such as formaldehyde and mercury, even if one of them was consumed or injected on its own.
2) Even if the quantity of any given ingredient was within a safe level, remember that a large number of these are being taken in all at once, which can lead to the accumulative toxicity being much higher.