Submission to the Independent Commission Against Corruption by Douglas Cotton, B.Sc., B.A., Dip. Bus. Admin over Greenhouse (greenhoax) events
From 2011 until the present I have spent thousands of hours in study and communication with other scientists in regard to atmospheric and sub-terrestrial physics, in particular as to how it relates to the issue regarding the alleged warming of Earth (and Venus) by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. I have written three papers, the first (“Radiated Energy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics”) having been peer-reviewed in 2012 when it appeared on several websites. This paper and two others are now appearing at https://ssrn.com/author=2627605. From my research and application of the laws of physics I can say with certainty that the so-called “greenhouse gases” (which are mostly water vapour and carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere) can do nothing but cool the surface of Earth, not warm it as is alleged by the CSIRO. By being a part of a world-wide movement promulgating the false claims about carbon dioxide supposedly causing warming, the CSIRO is fraudulently receiving funds for useless research which does little more than make the obvious conclusion that more carbon dioxide leads to more radiation from such.
With several Freedom of Information questions directed to the CSIRO I have come to the conclusion that they have failed to pay due diligence in checking what is false physics supposedly supporting “science” claiming this warming. If that science were correct then rainforests (with about 4% water vapour above them) should be about 50 to 80 degrees hotter than dry regions like deserts which may have around 1% or less of the greenhouse gas water vapour above them. The correct physics has been known by some physicists since the brilliant physicist Josef Loschmidt explained in 1876 how it is gravity acting on air molecules which makes the base of the atmosphere warmer than the top of the troposphere, not radiation from cold greenhouse gases supposedly causing heat transfer into the already-warmer surface.
I have pointed out to the CSIRO in notes attached to my FOI requests and reference to the above three papers that their “science” is obviously false. There are others like myself with qualifications in physics who also know it is false. In fact there are hundreds of published papers saying similar. Yet the CSIRO refuses to look into such papers and arrogantly claims their “scientists” are correct. Such people appear to be those from the relatively young science of climatology rather than their physicists who ought to understand the physics of heat transfer processes and maximum entropy production as happens in accord with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The correct physics is in my 2013 paper “Planetary Core and Surface Temperatures.”
The CSIRO has been asked in FOI requests to produce their physics and also evidence of warming by water vapour and carbon dioxide. They have produced no such physics and no papers containing empirical evidence of actual surface warming by these gases. Their cited papers merely assume that more carbon dioxide causes more warming. Their science claims that water vapour does most of “33 degrees” of warming of the global mean surface temperature, whereas in fact my study of data clearly indicates it cools the surface because it reduces the magnitude of the gravitationally-induced tropospheric temperature gradient.
Despite all this evidence and correct physics that I have sent them, and the explanations they have been provided with as to why their science is false, they persist in deliberately failing to look into this, and so I can only conclude that they realise that to tell the world the science is wrong would lead to many of their staff losing research jobs that are funded by the government based on their false science. I can only conclude that this amounts to corruption.
Climate Cargo Cult Circles the Pacific
By Viv Forbes
The World Economic Forum in 2015 had a prophetic vision that unless the world mends its wicked ways “global warming will become catastrophic and irreversible”.
In July 2016 the US Secretary of State, John Kerry, claimed that global warming was as dangerous to the world as Islamic terrorism.
At the recent G20 summit in China, the world leader of the Global Warming Religion, Ban Ki-moon, canonised two new cardinals – Cardinal Obama (who seeks political sainthood in his after-life), and Cardinal Xi Jinping (who seeks to crucify western industry on the climate cross). Both signed the Paris Pledge.
Then at the ASEAN Economic Forum, ordained Minister Turnbull of Australia joined worshippers to pray for a Saviour from Global Warming.
Global warming to hit Asia hardest – “Hundreds of millions of people are likely to lose their homes as flooding, famine and rising sea levels sweep the region.”
Finally, at the Pacific Island Forum in Vanuatu last week, the Global Warming service commenced with a rousing rendition of the hymn “Repent and Pay, or the Seas will Devour Us”.
As a sign of his devotion, Australia’s Global Warming Minister Turnbull dropped a cool $80M into the Global Warming Collection Plate. Islanders who truly believe will now receive total donations of A$300M from the pious Australian government.
John Kerry was right – this new Global Warming religion is spreading faster than radical Islam. It is the new Cargo Cult.
‘Global warming’ or is it ‘climate change’ recorded temperatures not in 2015, but 1896 in southern Australia. This data makes Greens Christine Milne and Sarah Hanson- Young (pictured) look like even bigger idiots than those already confirmed.
Yalgoo W.A. Dec 25 1895 122° or 127° F “the Emerald Hotel, an iron structure” or at the Court House ” The latter structure is a ” wooden frame with duck covering.”; Marra station N.S.W. 130 F on Jan 21. The link shows a full months record. “The figures were the readings of three different glasses, which were hung in the front verandah at the Marra, station, and were placed out from the wall on a frame to allow the air to get round them, thereby preventing the heat from the wall affecting the instruments.”; Berlino S.A. 130° F Jan 22. The thermometer “hangs on a stone house with a thickly thatched verandah facing West” … “never reached by the sun“. From Jan 5 to Jan 13, Berlino recorded many temperatures of 118° – 130° F; Kopperamanna Bore, via Hergott Springs S.A. “under date of January 23 : — ‘For the last month the heat here has been excessive. The lowest the glass has registered in the shade, a good canegrass shed, has been 108°. On three different days it showed 118°, and three times 116°, the average for the last month having been 113°.”; Cockburn S.A. 122° F Jan 25 (but measured in the general store); Near Cobar at Paddington station around the same “days it rose to 120deg. and 123deg., on a cool verandah, It seems almost incredible, but one night we looked to see what it was at 11 o’clock, and it registered 106deg.”.
Geraldton W.A. Wednesday, 1 Jan 1896 – 114° F “at Geraldton observatory“.
Geraldton W.A. Thursday, 2 Jan – 115° F “A child succumbs to the heat. ” at “ Northampton, where the thermometer ranged even higher than at Geraldton.”
Perth W.A. 3 Jan – 112° F ” Five deaths have been reported in the city on account of the great heat.”
Mullewa W.A. 3 Jan – 121° F “The town has been enveloped in clouds of dust.”and “crowds of people have bad to sleep out of doors. Water is very scarce.”
Carnarvon W.A. 3 Jan – 121° F Brick House station “It is farther reported that the mercury has been up as high as 125 in the shade there.”
Pinjarrah W.A. 3 Jan – 114° F followed by a minimum of 97° F.
Southern Cross W.A. Week ending 5 Jan – ”averaged 115deg.” “It has often been as high as 122deg.” Mr Mkay died in his office chair of heat apoplexy.
Cue W.A. Sunday, 5 Jan – ”Three weeks of uninterrupted excesive heat“ ”each day exceeded 105“ ”on two occasions reaching 118.“
Wilcannia N.S.W. Monday, 6 Jan – 117° F “Wyalong follows close with 114°. Then come Nowra and Corowa with 112.”
Isisford Qld. 6 Jan – 112° F ” The Government Astronomer states that the high temperature has been caused by a heat wave which has come across the continent from Port Darwin,“.
Bourke N.S.W. 6 Jan – ”The fact is that out of 93 weather telegrams sent in, 64 gave temperatures ranging from 100° at Cooma, Tabulam, Tenterfield, and a few other places, up to 118° in the shade recorded at Brewarrina and at Bourke. There were 22 stations which reported temperatures ranging from 110° to 118° inclusive.“
Canowindra N.S.W. 6 Jan – 114° F “Reaching the highest point on record“.
Farina S.A. 6 Jan – 113.5° F “the place occupied by the thermometer being a shadebox such as is used at the Adelaide Observatory.“
Ungarie N.S.W 6 Jan – 125° F “rural districts do not always recognise the nice distinctions between true shade and other shade.”
Farina S.A. Thursday, 9 Jan – 112.3° F
Quirindi N.S.W. Monday, 13 Jan – 120° F. Out of 54 temperatures shown on that list only one does not meet the 95° F (35° C) heatwave threshold.
Bulli N.S.W. 13 Jan – 115° F “This has been, the hottest day known“.
Kiama N.S.W. 13 Jan – 117° F ” A Scorcher Everywhere. Death and Distress.“
Parramatta N.S.W. 13 Jan – 111 ° F “Fruit Broiled on the Trees.” “Birds and Animals Drop Dead.”
Camden N.S.W. Tuesday, 14 Jan – 123°F ”Great Heat Wave ” “LIST OF CASUALTIES.”
Araluen N.S.W. Friday, 17 Jan – 110° F “It was thought that the heat had passed, but it was back again to-day“
Brewarrina N.S.W 17 Jan – 122° F “125 deaths attributable to heat apoplexy” (Sydney).
West Wyalong N.S.W 17 Jan – 114° F “The thermometer at the post office“.
Nannine W.A. Saturday, Jan 18 – ”After about three weeks of most oppressive heat, with the thermometer frequently registering 120deg. in the shade, the weather has broken.”
Farina S.A. Tuesday, Jan 21 – 112.3° F “Old residents say this is the hottest summer they have ever experienced.”
Broken Hill N.S.W. Wednesday, Jan 22 – 113½° F ”Two horses dropped dead in the street from the effects of the heat.“
Farina S.A. 22 Jan – 113° F “The temperature of our police cell was 148° several times.”
Olary S.A. Thursday, 23 Jan – 116° F “and dust flying in clouds during the afternoon.”
Adelaide S.A. 23 Jan – 111° F “Herbert Crown, an ostler at the Langham Hotel, fell down in King William-street this afternoon with sunstroke.”
Swan Hill Vic 23 Jan – 116° F “To-day, it is again exceedingly oppressive”.
Farina S.A. 23 Jan – 114.3° F “Five deaths have occurred in the town and one outside“.
Mildura Vic 23 Jan – 120° F “PHENOMENAL HEAT IN VICTORIA.“
Broken Hill 23 Jan – 115° F “Dr Enill took the temperature of the body an hour and a hall after death, and found that it was 109¾ .”
Halbury S.A. 23 Jan – 118° F “Many children are unwell, and it will go hard with them unless a change soon, comes.”.
Rapanyup Vic 23 Jan – 113° F “To-day it is again exceedingly oppressive“.
Natimuk Vic 23 Jan – 115° F ”Telegrams from the country districts show that the heat was general throughout the colony.”(Victoria).
Bega N.S.W. 23 Jan – 113° F “The minimum heat during last night was 73 . To-day the heat was terrific In the true shade the reading was 113 at 2pm“.
Geelong Vic 23 Jan – 110° F ” Largely due to a burning north-west wind.“
Hergott Springs S.A. 23 Jan “On three different days it showed 118° and three times 116°, the average for the last month having been 113°F. “
Grenfell and Ivanhoe N.S.W. 23 Jan – 122 ° F “At Ivanhoe the heat was so intense that the mail horses fell dead on the road.”
Charleville / Cunnamulla QLD. Friday, 24 Jan – 126/5° F “The official readings at the Post Office are lower; but the instruments used are placed in a thickly-planted garden which has been heavily irrigated during the last week,” So at which town was this garden and non stevenson screen recording? The clue is in the name “Grosvenor” here.
Cunnamulla QLD 24 Jan – ” The official record showed a reading on Tuesday of 111 degs. in the shade, on Wednesday 116 degs., and to-day 117 degs. On Wednesday at midnight, the high temperature of 99 degs. was recorded.”
Isisford QLD 24 Jan – “The thermometer on Monday rose to 114 degs., on Tuesday to 112 degs., on “Wednesday 115 degs., and to-day 118 degs. The country is very bare and the water is giving out fast.”
Wilcannia N.S.W 24 Jan – 123° F “not a breath of wind was stirring during the night”.
Hillston N.S.W. 24 Jan- 115° F “Anything under 110 is now beginning to be looked upon as contemptibly cool.”
Wilcannia N.S.W. Saturday, 25 Jan – 120° F “The thermometer fell 50deg. at Wilcannia, but a death from sunstroke occurred there yesterday.”
REALITY CHECK NEEDED BY CLIMATE DISCIPLES
Cosmic Cycles Control Climate
by Viv Forbes, Science writer
Those who think a war on carbon energy will lower Earth’s temperature need to study climate history.
Temperatures on Earth dance to a cyclical rhythm every hour, every day, every month, every season, every year, and to every beat of the sun-spot and glacial cycles.
These cycles interact to produce a wide range of ever-changing temperatures. Even at the same moment, temperatures vary dramatically from the equator to the poles and from the surface to the stratosphere. For would-be climate “managers” to claim they can calculate a mythical “global temperature” with precision greater than thermometers can measure is statistical nonsense.
It is even sillier for people who cannot accurately forecast next weekend’s weather to claim they can regulate the temperature of the globe by bashing industry and taxing carbon.
What is the role of carbon dioxide in climate? Al Gore did a great job to dramatise the recurring glacial cycles revealed by ice cores in his widely acclaimed work of science fiction. But he missed two inconvenient truths.
First, ice cores show that in the glacial spring-time the temperature rose BEFORE the CO2 levels rose. Therefore the rising CO2 cannot be a CAUSE of the warming – it is a RESULT of CO2 being expelled from the warming oceans.
Second, at the top of every warm cycle, high levels of CO2 in the atmosphere were unable to prevent Earth from cooling into the next cycle of ice.
We are fortunate to live in the Holocene Epoch, the latest warm phase of the Pleistocene Ice Age. The climate history of the Holocene, and its predecessor the Eemian, are well documented in ice core logs. These show that today’s warm Greenhouse Earth is probably nearing its end. It will be followed by Icehouse Earth.
There is no evidence in the climate records that carbon dioxide has a detectable effect on global temperatures. However if our continued use of cheap reliable hydro-carbon energy does slightly delay the onset of the next glacial winter, we and all life on Earth should count ourselves lucky.
Viv Forbes is a qualified geologist who has spent much of his life studying geological and climate history as written in the rocks. He has also spent several years in formal and private study of climatology and meteorology. He is the Founder of the Carbon Sense Coalition and a non-executive director of a small Australian company developing a coking coal mine.
By far the best reference book I have read on the above subjects is:
“The Inconvenient Skeptic” by John Kehr. This book is written in plain language, but full of sound science, well researched and referenced. I highly recommend it for those wishing to understand what drives our climate. (Hint: It is NOT carbon Dioxide.)
Another well-researched and easy-reading book on the long term cycles of ice ages and volcanism is:
“Not by Fire, but by Ice” by Robert Felix:
Original Research on Sunspots and Rainfall Cycles – Prof Will Alexander:
The Holocene Warmth as revealed by the Greenland Ice Cores:
The Eemian Warm Period was warmer than today:
Jennifer Marohasy The Australian September 29, 2015
For the true believer, it is too awful to even consider that the Australian Bureau of Meteorology could be exaggerating global warming by adjusting figures. This doesn’t mean, though, that it’s not true.
In fact, under prime minister Tony Abbott, a panel of eminent statisticians was formed to investigate these claims detailed in The Australian newspaper in August and September last year.
The panel did acknowledge in its first report that the bureau homogenised the temperature data: that it adjusted figures. The same report also concluded it was unclear whether these adjustments resulted in an overall increase or decrease in the warming trend.
No conclusions could be drawn because the panel did not work through a single example of homogenisation, not even for Rutherglen. Rutherglen, in northeastern Victoria, is an agricultural research station with a continuous minimum temperature record unaffected by equipment changes or documented site moves but where the bureau nevertheless adjusted the temperatures.
This had the effect of turning a temperature time series without a statistically significant trend into global warming of almost 2C a century.
According to media reports last week, a thorough investigation of the bureau’s methodology was prevented because of intervention by Environment Minister Greg Hunt. He apparently argued in cabinet that the credibility of the institution was paramount — that it was important the public had trust in the bureau’s data and forecasts, so the public knew to heed warnings of bushfires and cyclones.
Hunt defends the bureau because it has a critical role to play in providing the community with reliable weather forecasts.
This is indeed one of its core responsibilities. It would be better able to perform this function, however, if it used proper techniques for quality control of temperature data and the best available techniques for forecasting rainfall.
There has been no improvement in its seasonal rainfall forecasts for two decades because it uses general circulation models. These are primarily tools for demonstrating global warming, with dubious, if any, skill at actually forecasting weather or climate.
Consider, for example, the millennium drought and the flooding rains that followed in 2010.
Back in 2007 and 2008, David Jones, then and still the manager of climate monitoring and prediction at the Bureau of Meteorology, wrote that climate change was so rampant in Australia, “We don’t need meteorological data to see it”, and that the drought, caused by climate change, was a sign of the “hot and dry future” that we all collectively faced.
Then the drought broke, as usual in Australia, with flooding rains.
But the bureau was incapable of forecasting an exceptionally wet summer because such an event was contrary to how senior management at the bureau perceived our climate future.
So, despite warning signs evident in sea surface temperature patterns across the Pacific through 2010, Brisbane’s Wivenhoe dam, originally built for flood mitigation, was allowed to fill through the spring of 2010, and kept full in advance of the torrential rains in January 2011.
The resulting catastrophic flooding of Brisbane is now recognised as a “dam release flood”, and the subject of a class-action lawsuit by Brisbane residents against the Queensland government.
Indeed, despite an increasing investment in supercomputers, there is ample evidence ideology is trumping rational decision-making at the bureau on key issues that really matter, such as the prediction of drought and flood cycles. Because most journalists and politicians desperately want to believe the bureau knows best, they turn away from the truth and ignore the facts.
News Corp Australia journalist Anthony Sharwood got it completely wrong in his weekend article defending the bureau’s homogenisation of the temperature record. I tried to explain to him on the phone last Thursday how the bureau didn’t actually do what it said when it homogenised temperature time series for places such as Rutherglen.
Sharwood kept coming back to the issue of “motivations”. He kept asking me why on earth the bureau would want to mislead the Australian public.
I should have kept with the methodology, but I suggested he read what Jones had to say in the Climategate emails. Instead of considering the content of the emails that I mentioned, however, Sharwood wrote in his article that, “Climategate was blown out of proportion” and “independent investigations cleared the researchers of any form of wrongdoing”.
Nevertheless, the content of the Climategate emails includes quite a lot about homogenisation, and the scientists’ motivations. For example, there is an email thread in which Phil Jones (University of East Anglia) and Tom Wigley (University of Adelaide) discuss the need to get rid of a blip in global temperatures around 1940-44. Specifically, Wigley suggested they reduce ocean temperatures by an arbitrary 0.15C. These are exactly the types of arbitrary adjustments made throughout the historical temperature record for Australia: adjustments made independently of any of the purported acceptable reasons for making adjustments, including site moves and equipment changes.
Sharwood incorrectly wrote in his article: “Most weather stations have moved to cooler areas (ie, areas away from the urban heat island effect). So if scientists are trying to make the data reflect warmer temperatures, they’re even dumber than the sceptics think.”
In fact, many (not most) weather stations have moved from post offices to airports, which have hotter, not cooler, daytime temperatures. Furthermore, the urban heat island creeps into the official temperature record for Australia not because of site moves but because the record at places such as Cape Otway lighthouse is adjusted to make it similar to the record in built-up areas such as Melbourne, which clearly are affected by the urban heat island.
I know this sounds absurd. It is absurd, and it is also true. Indeed, a core problem with the methodology the bureau uses is its reliance on “comparative sites” to make adjustments to data at other places. I detail the Cape Otway lighthouse example in a recent paper published in the journal Atmospheric Research, volume 166.
It is so obvious that there is an urgent need for a proper, thorough and independent review of operations at the bureau. But it would appear our politicians and many mainstream media are set against the idea.
Evidently they are too conventional in their thinking to consider such an important Australian institution could now be ruled by ideology.
Jennifer Marohasy is a senior fellow at the Institute of Public Affairs.
‘The Forum considers that its own recommendations will deliver improvements to the management and communication of the ACORN-SAT dataset. There is a clear trend increase in both the raw and homogenised temperature data, and the temperature patterns exhibited in a variety of other datasets have a similar character. It is not currently possible to determine whether these improvements will be reflected in an increased or decreased warming trend that has been broadly observed across a range of different datasets.
Where Does the Carbon Dioxide Really Come From?
Professor Ian Plimer could not have said it better!
If you’ve read his book you will agree, this is a good summary.
PLIMER: “Okay, here’s the bombshell. The volcanic eruption in Iceland . Since its first spewing of volcanic ash has, in just FOUR DAYS, NEGATED EVERY SINGLE EFFORT you have made in the past five years to control CO2 emissions on our planet – all of you.
Of course, you know about this evil carbon dioxide that we are trying to suppress – it’s that vital chemical compound that every plant requires to live and grow and to synthesize into oxygen for us humans and all animal life.
I know….it’s very disheartening to realize that all of the carbon emission savings you have accomplished while suffering the inconvenience and expense of driving Prius hybrids, buying fabric grocery bags, sitting up till midnight to finish your kids “The Green Revolution” science project, throwing out all of your non-green cleaning supplies, using only two squares of toilet paper, putting a brick in your toilet tank reservoir, selling your SUV and speedboat,
vacationing at home instead of abroad. Nearly getting hit every day on your bicycle, replacing all of your 50 cent light bulbs with $10.00 light bulbs…..well, all of those things you have done have all gone down the tubes in just four days.
The volcanic ash emitted into the Earth’s atmosphere in just four days – yes, FOUR DAYS – by that volcano in Iceland has totally erased every single effort you have made to reduce the evil beast, carbon. And there are around 200 active volcanoes on the planet spewing out this crud at any one time – EVERY DAY.
I don’t really want to rain on your parade too much, but I should mention that when the volcano Mt Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines in 1991, it spewed out more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than the entire human race had emitted in all its years on earth. Yes, folks, Mt Pinatubo was active for over one year – think about it.
Of course, I shouldn’t spoil this ‘touchy-feely tree-hugging’ moment and mention the effect of solar and cosmic activity and the well-recognized 800-year global heating and cooling cycle, which keeps happening despite our completely insignificant efforts to affect climate change.
And I do wish I had a silver lining to this volcanic ash cloud, but the fact of the matter is that the bush fire season across the western USA and Australia this year alone will negate your efforts to reduce carbon in our world for the next two to three years. And it happens every year.
Just remember that your government just tried to impose a whopping carbon tax on you, on the basis of the bogus ‘human-caused’ climate-change scenario.
Hey, isn’t it interesting how they don’t mention
‘Global Warming’ anymore, but just’Climate Change’- you know why? It’s because the planet has COOLED by 0.7 degrees in the past century and these global warming bull artists got caught with their pants down.
And, just keep in mind that you might yet have an Emissions Trading Scheme – that whopping new tax – imposed on you that will achieve absolutely nothing except make you poorer. It won’t stop any volcanoes from erupting, that’s for sure.
But, hey, relax…… and have a nice day :>)”
I have spent 55 years in the engineering profession where ignoring the evidence often kills people. Thus I am predisposed to look at the evidence before drawing conclusions.
Many articles and claims about sea levels are in conflict with the evidence.
For instance, sea level has been rising at something between 2 and 3 mm per year since the end of the Little ice age. As you can see from the graph, there is no indication that the rate of sea level rise is increasing. There is some indication that the rate of rise has reduced slightly since 2006.
In addition, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology set up a chain of sea level measuring stations around Australia and in the Pacific that are the most accurate in the world. As you can see from the chart, the sea level at Tuvalu dropped markedly during the 1997 – 1998 El Niño and since 2000 it has been substantially constant. Claims that Tuvalu is sinking beneath rising sea levels caused by man-made carbon dioxide therefore cannot be true. it is most unfortunate that many people who choose to spread this rumour have not bothered to look at the data. It is particularly unfortunate for the population of Tuvalu because they have been told that their very real problems with erosion are beyond their control when, in fact, they have largely caused them by taking too much fresh water out of the water table and by mining the reef for coral to reclaim land. If the powers that be recognised that this is the case, then aid could be concentrated on solving the real problems, not the imaginary ones.
One division is 100 mm.
Others claim that Pacific Islands are disappearing. Once again, this does not stack up against the evidence:
Bryan Leyland MSc, FIEE(rtd), FIMechE, FIPENZ.
Adelaide has woken to its coldest August morning since 1888, when South Australia was still a separate colony, with the mercury dipping to just 0.9C, 7C below the month’s average.
It was also the coldest morning in the city in six years.
The cool temperatures come in the wake of a very strong cold front that came through late last week and even brought snow to the Adelaide Hills.
Weatherzone Meteorologist Brett Dutschke told 9NEWS.com.au the chill was partly due to clear skies and such light winds.
Temperatures did get below freezing in some northern suburbs this morning, while parts of the north of the state got colder than -5C.
Adelaide is expected to have a similar morning tomorrow, with widespread frost, but it should get warmer as the week continues.
Low temperatures turn The Riverland into a winter wonderland. (supplied)